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In andDating yemen girls fifty thousand Yemeni Jews left for Israel. Inthe population was 17, The annual growth rate is limited by migration and a high infant mortality rate. The birthrate Datinng high, and almost half gigls population is under fifteen years of age. Yemenis speak Arabic, which belongs to the Semitic language family. Classical Yemen Arabic, the language of Islam and the Koran, is used on formal occasions. The spoken dialects, whose areas roughly correspond to the six cultural zones, are used in everyday life.
Some groups have maintained their ancient oral tongues of the south Arabic branch. The most commonly used foreign language is English, and Russian is still understood in Sana'a and Aden. The notion of allegiance is shaped by kinship, the native land, language, faith, and a shared culture. The symbol of male honor is a curved dagger, the jambiyyah ; lineage is symbolized by a clan's tower at the top of a hill; and generosity and hospitality are expressed in making and serving coffee.
The coffee tree, the state eagle, the national colors, and the Marib Dam are shown in the new national emblem. The colors of the national flag horizontal bands of red, white, and black reflect pan-Arab symbolism, being similar to the flags of Syria, Iraq, and Egypt. The national anthem and national days of celebration emphasize the unification of the country. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The ancient walled city Sana'a is said to be the oldest city in the world, founded by Noah's eldest son, Shem, the forefather of Qahtan. The kingdom of Saba, with its capital, Marib, had existed since the first millennium B.
The Marib Dam provided irrigation for about twenty-five thousand acres of Most Yemenis are urban dwellers or sedentary agriculturalists. The prosperity of the principal rival kingdoms, Saba, Hadhramaut, Awsan, Qataban, and Ma'in, was based on Dating sg cultivation and overland exportation of frankincense, myrrh, and spices to the Mediterranean. Ancient South Arabian culture developed an intricate architecture and created masterpieces of figurative and decorative arts. At that time, caravan traffic became less important than the shipping route between Egypt and India.
The whole of southwestern Arabia was united Dating yemen girls the kingdom of Himyar circa B. After the fall of Jerusalem in 70 C. In the early sixth century, the kings of Himyar converted to Judaism and persecuted local Christians, leading the Abyssinians to take control of South Arabia in The Persian Sassanians followed in The advent of Islam to South Arabia in the seventh century ousted local pantheons and monotheistic cults. Yemeni tribes took an active part in the Arab conquests and the construction of an Islamic state, and the tribal principal became a distinct form of communal organization in the area. Inal-Hadi Yahya proclaimed himself the first Zaydi imam, establishing a Shi'a dynasty that ruled in several regions of northern Yemen until The Egyptian Ayyubids invaded in and controlled all of Yemen until Their local vassals, the Rasulids, ruled untilthe golden age of art, science, and prosperity.
The Tahirid tribesmen succeeded the Rasulids but were overthrown by the Egyptian Mamluks —who opened Yemen to invasion by the Ottoman Turks. The local coffee mocha named after the town al-Mukhabecame an important item in world trade. The split of Yemen into the south and the north was caused by British and Ottoman politics. Inthe British occupied Aden. The Ottomans took control over main regions of the north in — in spite of armed resistance by the Zaydi imams, who had defeated the Turks in, and Frequent uprisings forced the Ottomans to grant autonomy to the Zaydi regions in After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire inthe Turks withdrew from the north; its independence under the Zaydi imams was internationally recognized in The imams claimed the right to all of historical Yemen but ceded the province of Najran to Saudi Arabia in Inthe rule of imams was overthrown, and YAR was paroclaimed.
Inthe Aden Colony became part of the British-sponsored Federation of South Arabia, which was scheduled to become independent in The British had to withdraw inand power was seized by the Marxist-oriented National Liberation Front. On 22 May the new Yemeni nation was born. Six months after unification, the Gulf War started. Yemeni labor migrants from the Arab oil states were forced to return home, causing a population increase, a slowdown in the migrants' remittances, and a reduction in foreign aid. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Apart from a relatively few pastoral nomads who live in tents or caves, most residents are urban dwellers one-fourth and sedentary agriculturalists.
Since ancient times builders have used local materials to build cities and villages on mountain slopes, dry islets at the bed of a valley, stony plateaus, and sandy seashores. Most localities, from walled cities to tiny hamlets, are still divided into traditional quarters or neighborhoods. Public spaces, especially markets, foster communication among men. Cultural zones vary in the use of building materials. In villages in northern Tihama timber and straw are used, while in towns shell lime is more common; in southern Tihama timber and brick are used.
In the central mountainous region, hewn stone is used; in the highlands, houses are made of stone, burned brick, and stamped clay. In the desert, houses are built from stamped clay and sun-dried mud bricks. These materials also are used in Hadhramaut, whose multistory "skyscrapers" in Shibam are reputed to be the highest mud constructions in the world. Natural stone is used mainly in Mahra and on Socotra. The majority of buildings originate from pre-Islamic fortified towers that combine in a single structure under a whitewashed flat roof the functions of dwelling, storage, and fortress.
The traditional division of Arab dwellings into men's and women's halves led to the use of separate staircases and room entrances hidden behind partitions. There is a minimum of furniture: The floor is covered with palm leaf matting, goat-hair rugs, or imported rugs. Cubbyholes are made in thick walls for books, utensils, and clothes. UNESCO has sponsored international campaigns to protect the architectural heritage, encouraging the use of local materials and building methods. The s witnessed a construction boom in the urban centers. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Yemenis usually eat three times a day at home.
The traditional diet varies locally and socially and is open to innovations. One can drink a glass of tea or a brew of coffee husks outdoors in the daytime. Lentils and peas are traditional staples in addition to sorghum. Many inexpensive restaurants have opened, some of them Lebanese. Local food taboos are those common to the Islamic world: Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. At feasts and celebrations, the festive meal of the nomads, roasted or boiled meat from goat or sheep served on heaps of rice, is eaten.
In town and villages it is served with side dishes of roasted or fried eggplant and mixed green salads, with fruit or custard with raisins or grapes for dessert. People now consume more fish, poultry, and dairy products. Among the variety of sweets is bint as-sahn, a puff pastry covered with honey. Yemenis prepare special dishes and sweets for nightly breaks during the Ramadan fast. At wedding celebrations and religious feasts, coffee is drunk. In decorated drawingrooms, people smoke water pipes and chew qat.
About one-fourth of the gross domestic product is derived from agriculture. However, the nation imports more than sixty percent of its food needs. About twenty percent of the population suffers from malnutrition. Agriculture employs more than half the labor force. The principal crops are sorghum, potatoes, dates, wheat, grapes, barley, maize, cotton, millet, and garden vegetables, but only part of the harvest is produced for sale. This is also the case for sheep, goats, and camels. Coffee, biscuits, grapes, sesame seeds, sugar, honey, and dried and salted fish are exported.
Land Tenure and Property. Land can be state, private, or communal. Traditionally, state lands were used for cultivation and public purposes and were controlled by the state authorities; private property consisted of agricultural, building, and other plots; there were Islamic endowments and tribal land was used for grazing livestock and served as areas of tribal responsibility for travelers and protected groups. In the north, customs, laws, and practices concerning land and water allocation are Groups of chatting men in Sana'a.
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In the south, the first two practices were supplemented by British law and, after yemsn, socialist legislation. After unification, agricultural land was denationalized and returned in the south to those who owned it under the British. About 6 percent of the national territory is arable, 30 percent is occupied by pastures, and 7 percent is forest and woodland. Shops and permanent and weekly markets offer local and imported foodstuffs, qat and frankincense, livestock, manufactured goods, fabrics, and clothing. Goods traditionally associated with the culture, such as side arms, girlls, leather, and agates, also are Dating yemen girls for purchase.
The petroleum refinery in Little Aden produces a girl share of the industrial output. Other Dating yemen girls are foodstuffs, including soft drink bottling and dairy plants; cement and cinder blocks, tiles, and Dsting bricks; textiles; aluminum utensils, rubber and plastic; and salt. Yemenis still practice traditional handicrafts such as silver and copperwork, dagger manufacturing, carpentry, boat building, pottery, weaving and dyeing, wickerwork, and leather tanning. Electricity is generated from thermal power plants. Economic prospects depend on the development of oil resources. The principal exports are livestock and food, cigarettes, leather, and girld products, which are yemmen mainly to Saudi Arabia, Japan, and Italy.
All manner of staples Daing food to consumer goods are imported. Most of the population is employed in agriculture and herding or works as expatriate laborers. Industry about 5 girlz of total labor powerservices, construction, and commerce employ for less than half the workforce. There is a labor girsl that conforms to the traditional social strata. Social Stratification Classes Datin Castes. Under law all citizens are equal. Yeemn traditional social structure, however, Datng at the top the Sayyids stratum, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. The Sayyids competed for the office of Zaydi imam and control sacred enclaves, solved tribal conflicts by mediation, engaged in theology and law, and owned and leased land.
Slightly lower on the social scale are the Qadis Dting Fuqaha in the south, the Mashayikh who perform the same social functions. Qabilis tribesmen control their territory and caravan routes, own arable land that most of them cultivate, and carry weapons. The lower strata are underprivileged and have an obscure Online dating ask out dating frauen aus polen. Being under tribal protection, they traditionally were deprived of land ownership and were not allowed to bear arms. The members of this group are called the Bani Khums in the north and the Masakeen and Du'afa the poor and the weak in the south.
They engage in low-status occupations that in most cases are hereditary, working as smiths, carpenters, potters, brokers, barbers who also perform circumsionbloodletters, musicians, heralds, butchers weavers and Dting, and tanners. The Akhdams servants wash and bury the dead and clean latrines. The majority of Akhdams and exslaves Abeeds are of African or Ethiopean descent. All these strata tend to be endogamous or, in the south, observe the marital rule of hypergamy, in which men marry within their strata or lower and women Daying their equals or higher-status men. The mass return of expatriates in has raised the social problem of muwalladinor Yemenis of mixed origins.
Symbols of Social Stratification. Male Sayyids and Qadis traditionally wore long robes and covered their heads with white or green turbans; their authority also was symbolized by a staff, a ring, and a flag. Tribal symbols include weapons firearmsdances, greetings, call songs, and tribal poetry. Women's dress reflects not so much class differences but social and regional ones except for the fact that women in nomadic tribes and the most under-privileged strata leave their faces unveiled. In the south, the jambiya is worn only by tribesmen.
In the north, men in most social strata carry daggers. Today all Yemeni men prefer to wear jambiyas that are placed vertically at the center of the belt. United Yemen proclaimed itself a presidential republic and a multiparty parliamentary democracy. The constitution was approved by referendum in and was amended in The president is elected for a five-year term; the last campaign for the presidency was won in by the general Ali Abdullah Saleh. Executive authority is vested in the prime minister and the cabinet. The Women have rights guaranteed by law, but gender disparity is widespread. Supreme Court heads the judicial branch. The press is among the freest in the Arab world.
Leadership and Political Officials. Politics is practiced mostly outside the new democratic institutions. Real power is exercised through a network of personal relations and patronage and clientele ties that involve family, class, and local affinities. Since a multiparty system was not allowed before unification, the strength of party leadership matters today more than does ideology. Among about forty political parties and organizations, the most significant are: Social Problems and Control. Inthe court system was set up with the Supreme Court of the Republic at the top in Sana'a, provincial courts of appeal in every governorate, and uniform district courts in the main local centers.
Inlaws regarding crimes, punishments, and criminal procedures were promulgated; the police and security forces were organized. Those measures were aimed at eradicating corruption, bribery, and favoritism. Other common crimes are larceny in large cities, smuggling along the border, and the taking of hostages in tribal areas; robbery and murder are not widespread. Crime statistics are not representative, since disputes traditionally are solved through mediation, customary tribal arbitration, and mutual accord.
Yemenis regard customary justice as less expensive than state courts. Legal practice includes contradictory aspects of secular, religious, and customary regulations. Military campaigns took place in,and The Defense Forces include an army, a navy, an air force, and paramilitary forces that include the police. Most tribes have their own militias. Social Welfare and Change Programs The current development strategies are documented in a five-year plan that calls for a market economy led by the private sector. External assistance, which was withdrawn in the early s, returned afterwhen the government launched an ambitious economic, financial, and administrative reform program under the auspices of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
About an eighth of external aid goes for health and human resources development. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations There are trade unions, professional syndicates, human rights groups, and sport, religious including charitableand other informal organizations and associations, most of which have a top-down structure. In the cultural stereotype, women are viewed as subordinate and indulgent mothers, sisters, and wives who perform household duties; men are seen as financial providers in the outside world, responsible for the wellbeing and prestige of the family. Long-term male labor migration has resulted in a modification of the traditional division of labor, since women and older children have had to take over some male tasks, particularly in agriculture.
Some women in urban centers have jobs in education and health care. Women Islamic activists are very active in the Islah Charitable Society, which helps the poor. The Relative Status of Women and Men. The constitution states that women are men's sisters and have rights and duties guaranteed by Islamic Shari'a and secular law. However, gender disparity in all aspects of life outside the family is striking, since religious authorities strongly recommend gender segregation. For example the testimony of two women in court equals that of one man. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Young people often have their own cell phones, and use them to text or call members of the opposite sex.
In Yemen, men and women socialize separately from each other even at gatherings such as weddings, and almost all women wear the hijab, writes Daniel Ethan Chapman in Examining Social Theory. Women and men are expected to adhere strictly to traditional gender roles. Teenaged boys and girls have no opportunities to get to know each other, and girls are expected to look down at the street when walking and to avoid conversations with boys. Honor and Violence Yemeni society is clan-based, and a clan can lose its honor if it fails to punish incidents of real or suspected sexual activity outside of marriage.
Young people who flirt with each other can be physically punished, and those become sexually involved with each other can be physically attacked or even killed by their own family members, according to Nahid Afrose Kabir, author of Young American Muslims. Young people suspected of homosexual behavior can be kicked out of the family and in some cases killed. Arranged Marriages Marriages in Yemen are usually arranged by the parents. Boys are sometimes allowed to have some input on the final decision, but girls generally are not.
Girls are often married between the ages of 11 and 14, especially in rural Yemen where traditional customs are strongest. In some parts of Yemen, girls are required to be prove their virginity by allowing family members and neighbors to examine the bedsheets for bloodstains after the wedding night.