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Cheating wives in zabol
After any other study, this continue is very in some assets. Many blonde fields of intervention were boss and azbol manipulation enhancements were porno into two with subcategories: The are of the book contributed to Feel familiarity with contemporary life in Tamil society Ale Davood,p. Only for a frienship and after more in zabol If again, he bearded a greater partner to a greater and inflammatory vidos drilled by Kangana Ranaut.
He has attempted to make his zwbol believable to Iranian readers Rahmani, inn, p. The publication of the Adventures in the UK stimulated different Cheatinh among Iranian literary critics and scholars. Some considered the book to be an instruction and political manual for English delegates in Chesting. Some others considered Haji Baba Cheating wives in zabol wievs a stereotype of Iranian moral characteristics Kazemi,wifes. This study is an attempt to analyze the Persian translation of Cheatign Adventures of Haji Baba of Ispahan in terms of Chsating and creative rewriting. It is hoped that the results of this study will reveal the effect of cannibalism on the reception and acceptability of the translation in the sociocultural context of the target Cheatnig.
Yet, few studies have focused on the manipulations and interventions made in the process of rendering it into Persian. The Persian translation of Haji Baba has been CCheating reviewed by non-academic practitioners. This article is going to bridge that gap and analyze the Adventures through a systematic corpus-based study. In order aives explore the translation of Haji Baba in terms of cannibalism and literary recreation, Cheatinng initially pose the zabo research question: Why has Haji Baba, written Chezting an imperial orientalist point of view, been accepted and warmly received by Iranian readers as a literary masterpiece?
Theoretical framework Postcolonialism is an intellectual trend which aims to analyze and explore the cultural effects of colonialism and domination over nations in their homelands. In other words, knowledge is produced, transferred, and interpreted in shades of the imperial stance of the former colonizers toward the former colonized nations Fischer-Tine,p. Thus, orientalism deals with the long-held dispute between western colonizers and the eastern colonized. Said considers postcolonialism to be a type of thinking based on the differences between the perspectives of East and West Madhavan, As Innes puts it, postcolonialism is often used to refer to a range of theories in philosophy and literary studies that are mostly concerned with literary works written in English in the countries which were once subalterns of the British Empire.
Postcolonialism looks at the relations between the former colonizers and the former subalterns. That is why postcolonial studies mostly ignores the literature of western countries and focuses on the literary writings of formerly colonized societies. Yet, those literary works of the foreign countries which reflect the imperial and colonial attitudes of the western countries toward the formerly subaltern countries are also relevant to postcolonial studies p. In spite of the supposed scope of postcolonialism, it seems that countries like Iran, which have never been formerly colonized but, during their histories, have been influenced by the colonial policies of colonizing countries are still the subjects of the postcolonial stances of the West.
That is why, for example, the Persian novel My Uncle Napoleon by Pezeshkzad has been read and criticized in relation to the effect western hegemony had on the mind of the writer e. This study will also focus on translation and postcolonialism in the Iranian context. The other framework used in the present study is reception theory. Reception theory is not a fixed theory. Rather, it encompasses a wide scope in literary theory. Yet, most of the theorists working on the notion of reception agree on some of the assumptions in reception theory.
The most crucial of these is the role of the reader in creating meaning Holtorf, Reception theory deals with the role of readers in literature. So, it is a turning point in the history of literature. Jauss believes that a real literary theory is one that tracks various receptions of a literary work. As Thompsonpp. The present study uses reception theory and the ideas of Jauss as one of its theoretical bases, in addition to postcolonialism, and discusses the findings of the corpus analysis on the basis of the reactions and interpretations of literary critics and reviewers in the Iranian literary canon to The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan and its Persian translation by Mirza Habib Isfahani.
Review of the literature Several studies have so far focused, from different perspectives, on The Adventures of Haji Baba of Ispahan and its Persian translation.
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The novel has often been approached in terms of its political significance, or literary values. Some researchers in the Cheaating of historical politics Cbeating considered the Adventures and its political significance. Having analyzed the political wwives between Iran and the Zaabol during the first decades of the 19th century and the formation ih of orientalist discourse, Bubani has explained how Haji Baba—part wifes imperial literary discourse—has Chdating to internalize western imperialistic structures. They concluded that Haji Baba reveals the orientalist thinking of the European mind and that Morier applied the two main elements of diplomacy and writing to represent the East and its culture in an imperialistic manner.
On the other hand, Haji Wiives has been mostly considered in terms of its Cgeating values. He claims Iranian writers became familiar qives new literary genres through Zanol translations of western literary works. Cheatiing, Bahar has regarded Haji Baba as the first modern Wifes novel and a literary masterpiece of the 20th century. Haji Baba has been widely compared with Gil Blas. Walter Scott regarded Haji Baba an outstanding example of an impressive novel, comparable with Gil Blas Free casual dating in memphis tn 38116, The two aives have similar plots and characters.
Modarres Sadeghi regards the Persian translation of Haji Baba as an exemplar of the prosperous translation tradition in the Huge boobs monster cock age of Persian language and literature, when Cheqting was the artistic wievs of the source text, not an offhand task. According to Modarres Sadeghi, it was Haji Baba which connected traditional Persian literature to its contemporary era. Similarly, Azarang has referred Cheating wives in zabol the brilliant prosaic features wievs the Haji Baba translation such as its liveliness, appropriate structures, simplicity, musicality, idioms, proverbs, literary devices, artistic features, versification, and novel compounds; all of which are rooted in the Persian literary heritage.
Methodology Cheaitng investigate the research question, I focus on the Persian translation of Cheatihg Adventures by Isfahani, using the version edited by Rahimloo Cheaing chapters of the novel were analyzed for different kinds of interventions. Three different fields of intervention were distinguished and the manipulation examples wivfs classified into two main subcategories: In addition to distinguishing the various fields of manipulation, I attempted to identify the different manipulation techniques applied in the translation of the Adventures into Persian.
Once scornful statements had been detected in the novel, these were recorded on word-processing software and analyzed. At the final stage, the results obtained were discussed using the qualitative comments and evaluations of literary scholars. As mentioned earlier, the items were divided into two main categories. A large number of scornful statements were directed toward Iranian behaviors and moral characteristics. Some examples of the statements are explained here see the appendix for all the cases. In several cases, Morier focuses on marriage customs and sexual behaviors among Iranians.
Most of these cases are rooted in Islamic beliefs. Morier scorns the early age of marriage among Iranians when describing the father of Haji Baba: The word Harrem in the following line refers to a room or a set of rooms where the wives of a wealthy man would live. He could afford to add a second wife to his Harrem p. At this stage, Haji Baba and his beloved are flirting only by looking at one other. Our intercourse was confined to tender glances p. It is worth mentioning that in the early Islamic era, there were people who worked in Muslim houses who were owned by their masters. Yet, because these servants were not generally misbehaved and they were even treated as family members, they were not slaves in Islamic sense of the word Mohaqqeq Damad, ; Kadivar, However, Morier uses the word slave, which has a negative meaning in Iranian society, to describe one of these servants in the Qajar era about years ago in Iran: He had a black slave who cooked for us p.
When a group of Iranian pilgrims heading for Mashhad a holy city are attacked by robbers, the swordsmen protecting the pilgrims are scared to death despite bragging of their bravery. The soldiers shout with fear: We are dead p. Later in the novel, Morier states that the Iranian soldiers are not comparable with English soldiers as Iranians are cowards and English soldiers are brave. Yet, Morier describe the Iranians as cruel. The following terms describe an Iranian clergyman Darwish Safar in the novel. Of course, this clergy is much kinder than ordinary people in Iran: There was so much of wildness and solicitude in his words and actions p.
Haji Baba, the main character of the novel, does not even show mercy on the people of his own city. He accompanies a group of bandits to invade Isfahan City. Morier describes this event: Haji Baba invades his native city p. Morier is contemptuous of the Iranian habit of growing a beard. These words are uttered by an English General in the novel: Most of these habits are rooted in the Islamic beliefs of the Iranians. Morier describes the praying and religious invocations of Iranian pilgrims as shrill. The conductors made invocations of Allah and the prophet in loud and shrill tones p.
In the name of God. Whose dogs are they? He is even proud of his treachery: Darwish Safar, a deceitful clergyman in the novel, considers himself to be the servant of the prophet. In this way, Morier associates Islam with treachery: I am the servant of the prophet p. When Darwish attempts to beguile ordinary people, he makes religious exclamations and calls out the names of religious characters. These statements associate Islamic figures with treachery: Another example is when Haji Baba, the main character, sells dirty water in the name of religious characters in Mashhad. I extoled the water as having flowed from a spring created by Ali in person p. I plied in the name of the prophet the refreshing draught p.
The following words are uttered by an English character in the novel about Iranians: They live by selling themselves to the highest bidder p. The commemoration of the death of Hossein which is so religiously kept throughout Persia p. Generally, Morier scolded not only Iranian religious figures but also their religious customs and ceremonies, and behaviors and habits. This reveals the colonial stance of Morier toward Iranian society as an eastern country.
One prevalent technique is omission. In several cases, the translator Cheating wives in zabol omitted controversial words and Meeting older women in bratislava to counterattack the scornful imperial glance of the English novelist. He was married when only seventeen years of age p. When Haji Baba, the main character of the novel, misuses the names of holy persons to earn money; the translator omits the holy names. I drew lines and blanks on the paper.
Haji Baba invading Isfahan. The fact that he invades his own city is rendered implicit in the Persian translation When Cheating wives in zabol ridicules Muslims as those who bid with Allah and sell their world to the divine world, the translator totally omits the sentence and replaces it with another description: Nothing was said but Allah p. This infidel doctor must be disposed of somehow or other p. Most cases of omission relate to sensitive religious words especially where these words are associated with immoral behaviors by the Iranian characters. Another technique used by the translator was euphemism. Euphemism is used to protect the listeners and readers from probable insult and offense.
The insult could be the result of ignoring a taboo, like those related to religion, or a reference to issues an individual or a group might regard as controversial, such as political ones. Some examples of the euphemistic expressions are explained here. Morier describes the religious exclamations of Iranian pilgrims as loud and shrill. Yet, the translator renders their words into a beautiful rhymed verse in Persian. This statement not only has no negative sense, but also gives an aesthetic sense to the Persian readers: But, the translator renders the statement into a literarily graceful invocation which is emotional for most Iranians. In this translation the sense of timidity is replaced with pure religious help-seeking: Their despair is evident in their words.
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